|Charts (* = updated daily)||Data and archive|
|Solar wind (*)||Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (*)|
|Electron fluence (*)||Archived daily reports and monthly data since 2003.01 (September 3, 2023)|
|Solar cycle||Solar cycles 23-25 (September 1, 2023)||Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (April 5, 2007)|
|Cycle 24-25 progress (September 1, 2023)||Noon SDO sunspot count 1K image / 4K (*)|
|Solar cycles 1-24 (July 1, 2020)||POES auroral activity level [October 2009 - December 2012]|
|Comparison of cycles 21-25 (September 1, 2023)||3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013|
|Comparison of cycles 12-14, 16, 24-25 (September 1, 2023)||4th SSN Workshop, Locarno, 2014|
|Solar polar fields vs. solar cycles (July 10, 2023)||Cycle 25 spots (final update December 25, 2019)|
|Solar cycles 24-25 transition using 365d smoothing||Research: Solar Cycle 25 Started on November 17, 2019 with 365 Days Smoothing|
The geomagnetic field was quiet to active on September 5. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 350 and 455 km/sec. A weak solar wind shock was observed at SOHO at 14:34 UT, the likely arrival of the September 1 CME. The high latitude magnetometer at Andenes recorded quiet to minor storm levels.
Solar flux density measured at 20h UT on 2.8 GHz was 142.9 - decreasing 10.5 over the previous solar rotation. (Centered 1 year average SF at 1 AU - 183 days ago: 153.56. In comparison SC24 peaked on June 28, 2014 at 145.50). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 10 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 9.5). Three hour interval K indices: 11112442 (planetary), 11112432 (Boulder), 10023542 (Andenes).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B8 level (GOES 16).
At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 17 active regions using 2K resolution (SN: 286) and in 12 active regions using 1K resolution (SN: 174) SDO/HMI images.
Region 13417 [S09W29] decayed slowly and
Region 13418 [N24W19] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 13419 [N25W77] decayed slowly and was mostly quiet.
Region 13420 [S20W10] decayed slowly and was mostly quiet. C1 flares: C1.6 @ 23:08 UT
Region 13421 [N14W11] produced several C and M fares. The magnetic deltas observed on the previous day disappeared. The region gained area and spots. C1 flares: C1.0 @ 02:18. C1.4 @ 17:46 UT
Region 13422 [N14E08] decayed slowly and was mostly quiet.
Region 13423 [N15E49] gained area and spots with a magnetic delta forming in a northeastern penumbra.
New region 13424 [N17E74] rotated quietly into view with small spots.
Spotted regions not observed (or interpreted
differently) by SWPC/USAF:
S8909 [N19W29] was quiet and stable.
S8914 [S07W39] decayed slowly, however, a tiny positive polarity spot emerged just ahead of the largest spot.
S8922 [N21W72] was quiet and stable.
New region S8924 [S31E20] emerged before noon, then decayed slowly.
New region S8926 [N20E21] was observed with tiny spots in an old plage area.
New region S8927 [N24E83] rotated partly into view with a few spots. It is uncertain if these spots are part of a larger region which has been quite active behind the northeast limb the last day. C1 flares: C1.0 @ 07:17, C1.1 @ 15:30 UT
New region S8928 [S22E44] was observed with tiny spots in an old plage area.
New region S8929 [N06W42] emerged with a tiny spot.
New region S8930 [S19E07] was observed with tiny spots in an old plage area.
|Magnitude||Peak time (UT)||Location||Source||Recorded by||Comment|
|C7.2||09:37||northeast limb||S8927?||GOES16||incorrectly attributed to AR 13424 by SWPC|
September 3-4: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed.
September 5: Two asymmetrical full halo CMEs were observed, probably from the same source (old AR 13413) a few days behind the northwest limb.
[Coronal hole history (since October 2002)]
[Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago]
A negative polarity northern hemisphere coronal hole (CH1168) was Earth facing on September 3. CH1168 may be too far to the north to cause geomagnetic effects.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle and high latitudes is poor to fair. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor to fair.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be mostly quiet on September 6-8. Effects from CH1168 could cause unsettled intervals on September 6-7.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejections (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole
could reach Earth within the next 5 days. When the high speed
stream has arrived the color changes to green.
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution). 4K resolution. Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all officially numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC, all other regions are numbered sequentially as they emerge using the STAR spot number. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers. SWPC data considered to be not sufficiently precise (location, area, classification) are colored red.
|Active region||SWPC date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlays
|S8914||2023.09.01||2||2||S07W39||0060||CAO||split off from AR 13417|
was AR S8925
|Total spot count:||41||114||54|
|Sunspot number:||121||284||174||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||57||138||78||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||133||156||139|
|Month||Average solar flux||International sunspot number
|Smoothed sunspot number (4)||Average ap
|166.3||146.1 (SC24 peak)||110.5||10.70|
|2014.04||143.9||144.8||112.5||116.4 (SC24 solar max)||7.88|
(Solar minimum using 365d smoothing:
November 17, 2019)
(ISN 13 months smoothed
|2023.03||157.2||155.6||123.3||(121.0 projected, +3.1)||14.42|
|2023.04||145.4||146.4||96.4||(126.3 projected, +5.3)||13.40|
|2023.05||155.6||159.2||137.9||(131.9 projected, +5.6)||10.67|
|2023.06||161.7||166.8||163.4||(135.1 projected, +3.2)||8.95|
|2023.07||176.4||182.2||159.1||(135.5 projected, +0.4)||8.15|
|2023.08||153.7||157.6||114.9||(137.3 projected, +1.8)||7.3|
|2023.09||135.3 (1)||11.3 (2A) / 84.8 (2B) / 113.9 (2C)||(140.7 projected, +3.4)||(24.4)|
|2023.10||(142.5 projected, +1.8)|
|2023.11||(145.1 projected max SC25, +2.6)|
|2023.12||(144.2 projected, -0.9)|
|2024.01||(141.4 projected, -2.8)|
|2024.02||(141.2 projected, -0.2)|
|2024.03||(140.8 projected, -0.4)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at 2800 MHz
and any corrections applied to that measurement.
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days).
2B) Boulder SN current month average to date.
2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
4) Source: WDC-SILSO, Royal Observatory Of Belgium, Brussels
Looking back 6 months, the 365d smoothed values for solar flux and all sunspot numbers with the exception of NOAA's, are all above their solar cycle 24 peak. The first peak of solar cycle 25 is forecast to be between July 7 and 10, 2023 (solar flux on July 7, ISN and STAR 1K and 2K all have that peak on July 9, while NOAA peaks on July 10). This is unlikely to be the final peak of SC25, however, there is a small probability that it is the actual sunspot and solar flux maximum.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to Universal Time. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.