Solar Terrestrial Activity Report

Activity chart

Last major update issued on November 8, 2023 at 04:40 UT.

Charts (* = updated daily) Data and archive
  Solar wind (*) Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (*)
  Electron fluence (*) Archived daily reports and monthly data since 2003.01 (November 5, 2023)
Solar cycle Solar cycles 23-25 (November 1, 2023) Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (April 5, 2007)
  Cycle 24-25 progress (November 1, 2023) Noon SDO sunspot count 1K image / 4K (*)
  Solar cycles 1-24 (July 1, 2020) POES auroral activity level [October 2009 - December 2012]
  Comparison of cycles 21-25 (November 1, 2023) 3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013
  Comparison of cycles 12-14, 16, 24-25 (November 1, 2023) 4th SSN Workshop, Locarno, 2014
  Solar polar fields vs. solar cycles (July 10, 2023) Cycle 25 spots (final update December 25, 2019)
  Solar cycles 24-25 transition using 365d smoothing Research: Solar Cycle 25 Started on November 17, 2019 with 365 Days Smoothing

Recent activity

The geomagnetic field was quiet to minor storm on November 7 under the in  fluence of a high speed stream from CH1183. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 636 and 787 km/sec. The high latitude magnetometer at Andenes recorded quiet to major storm levels.

Solar flux density measured at 20h UT on 2.8 GHz was 145 - decreasing 13.0 over the previous solar rotation. (Centered 1 year average SF at 1 AU - 183 days ago: 156.28. In comparison SC24 peaked on June 28, 2014 at 145.50). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 18 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 18.1). Three hour interval K indices: 54223333 (planetary), 34223333 (Boulder), 64423353 (Andenes).

The background x-ray flux is at the class C1 level (GOES 16).

At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 9 active regions using 2K resolution (SN: 206) and in 9 active regions using 1K resolution (SN: 163) SDO/HMI images.

Region 13477 [S14W13] was mostly quiet and stable. C1 flares: C1.2 @ 13:19 UT
Region 13479 [N22W56] developed quickly as new flux emerged. Flare activity increased after noon. A minor M class is possible. C1 flares: C1.0 @ 15:24, C1.6 @ 15:59 UT
Region 13480 [S08E12] decayed slowly and was mostly quiet. C1 flares: C1.9 @ 05:52 UT
Region 13481 [N21E12] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 13482 [N03E42] was mostly quiet and stable. C1 flares: C1.2 @ 13:34 UT
New region 13483 [N09E05] emerged on November 5 and was numbered 2 days later by SWPC. New flux emerged on Nov.7 and the region has significant polarity intermixing. An M class flare is possible. C1 flares: C1.1 @ 13:12, C1.7 @ 23:56 UT

Spotted regions not observed (or interpreted differently) by SWPC/USAF:
S9125 [N26W21] was quiet and stable.
New region S9128 [N25E03] emerged with tiny spots.
New region S9129 [S18E51] emerged with a tiny spot.

C2+ flares:

Magnitude Peak time (UT) Location Source Recorded by Comment
C2.0 16:13   13479 GOES16  
C2.9 23:01   13483 GOES16  

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs)

November 5-7: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed.

Coronal holes

[Coronal hole history (since October 2002)]
[Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago]

A large and well defined negative polarity trans equatorial coronal hole (CH1183) was Earth facing on November 4-6.

Propagation

Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle and high latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor.

Forecast

The geomagnetic field is expected to be at quiet to active levels on November 8 due to effects from CH1183. Quiet to unsettled is likely on November 9-10.

Coronal holes (1) Coronal mass ejections (2) M and X class flares (3)
     

1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to green.
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.

Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.

Active solar regions


(Click on image for 2K resolution). 4K resolution. Compare to the previous day's image.
0.5K image

When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.

Data for all officially numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC, all other regions are numbered sequentially as they emerge using the STAR spot number. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers. SWPC data considered to be not sufficiently precise (location, area, classification) are colored red.

Active region SWPC date numbered
STAR detected
Spot count Location at midnight Area Classification SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlays
Comment
SWPC/
USAF
Magnetic
(SDO)
SWPC STAR Current Previous
2K 1K
13473 2023.10.25
2023.10.26
      N17W87            
13476 2023.10.28
2023.10.31
      S15W89           location: S13W79
S9106 2023.10.30       N12W59            
13479 2023.10.31
2023.11.02
5 12 8 N23W58 0030 CAO DRI area: 0120

location: N22W56

13478 2023.10.31
2023.11.01
      N12W11        

location: N13W08

13477 2023.10.31 8 29 19 S15W11 0260 CKO CKO

area: 0400

location: S14W13

S9111 2023.11.01       N25W41          
S9113 2023.11.01       S37W46            
13480 2023.11.02
2023.11.03
5 28 16 S08E13 0050 CAO DAO

area: 0080

13481 2023.11.02
2023.11.04
  3 1 N20E06 0010   AXX location: N21E12
S9116 2023.11.02       N00W57            
S9117 2023.11.03       S10W48            
S9119 2023.11.03       N35W48            
13482 2023.11.04
2023.11.05
1 3 2 N04E40 0030 HRX HRX

location: N03E42

13483 2023.11.05
2023.11.07
5 29 22 N10E02 0030 CRO DRI beta-gamma

location: N09E05

area: 0200

S9123 2023.11.05       S31E05            
S9125 2023.11.06   4 2 N26W21 0010   BXO  
S9126 2023.11.06       S34E21          
S9127 2023.11.06       S29E36          
S9128 2023.11.07   7 2 N25E03 0012   BXO    
S9129 2023.11.07   1 1 S18E51 0002   AXX    
Total spot count: 24 116 73  
Sunspot number: 74 206 163  (total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)
Weighted SN: 50 140 97  (Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)
Relative sunspot number (Wolf number): 81 113 130  

Monthly solar cycle data

Month Average solar flux International sunspot number
(WDC-SILSO)
Smoothed sunspot number (4) Average ap
(3)
Measured 1 AU
2014.02 170.3
(cycle peak)
166.3 146.1 (SC24 peak) 110.5 10.70
2014.04 143.9 144.8 112.5 116.4 (SC24 solar max) 7.88
2017.09 91.3 92.3 43.6 18.2 (-1.3) 18.22
(SC24 peak)
2019.11 70.2 68.7 0.5 2.0 (-0.6)
(Solar minimum using 365d smoothing:
November 17, 2019)
4.19
2019.12 70.8 68.6 1.6 1.8 (-0.2)
(ISN 13 months smoothed
solar minimum)
3.22
2022.04 130.8 131.7 84.0 73.0 (+4.3) 11.79
2022.05 133.8 136.8 96.5 77.4 (+4.4) 7.48
2022.06 116.1 119.8 70.3 81.1 (+3.7) 8.20
2022.07 125.4 129.5 91.4 86.7 (+5.6) 9.51
2022.08 114.2 117.1 74.6 92.6 (+5.9) 10.92
2022.09 135.1 136.5 96.0 96.5 (+3.9) 12.18
2022.10 133.5 132.7 95.5 98.9 (+2.4) 11.16
2022.11 123.4 120.7 80.5 101.2 (+2.3) 9.33
2022.12 147.9 143.4 112.8 106.7 (+5.5) 10.99
2023.01 182.4 176.6 144.4 113.3 (+6.6) 8.73
2023.02 167.2 163.2 111.3 117.8 (+3.5) 14.48
(current
SC25 peak)
2023.03 157.2 155.6 123.3 121.0 (+3.2) 14.42
2023.04 145.4 146.4 97.6 122.7 (+1.7) 13.40
2023.05 155.6 159.2 137.4 (124.7 projected, +2.0) 10.67
2023.06 161.7 166.8 160.5 (127.9 projected, +3.2) 8.95
2023.07  176.4 182.2 159.1 (128.3 projected, +0.4) 8.15
2023.08  153.7 157.6 114.8 (130.1 projected, +1.8) 7.19
2023.09  154.4 156.0 133.6 (133.5 projected, +3.4) 14.26
2023.10  142.8 141.9 99.4 (135.2 projected, +1.7) 8.16
2023.11 153.5 (1)   21.0 (2A) / 89.9 (2B) / 109.2 (2C) (137.8 projected max SC25, +2.6) (20.7)
2023.12       (137.1 projected, -0.7)  
2024.01       (134.4 projected, -2.7)  
2024.02       (134.2 projected, -0.2)  
2024.03       (133.7 projected, -0.5)  
2024.04       (134.5 projected, +0.8)  
2024.05       (135.8 projected, +1.3)  

1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at 2800 MHz and any corrections applied to that measurement.
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days).
2B) Boulder SN current month average to date.
2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
4) Source: WDC-SILSO, Royal Observatory Of Belgium, Brussels

Solar cycles 24-25

Smoothed SF and sunspot numbers

Update on the progress of solar cycle 25 as of August 20, 2023

Looking back 6 months, the 365d smoothed values for solar flux and all sunspot numbers with the exception of NOAA's, are all above their solar cycle 24 peak. The first peak of solar cycle 25 is forecast to be between July 7 and 10, 2023 (solar flux on July 7, ISN and STAR 1K and 2K all have that peak on July 9, while NOAA peaks on July 10). This is unlikely to be the final peak of SC25, however, there is a small probability that it is the actual sunspot and solar flux maximum.

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This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to Universal Time. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.

SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.