|Charts (* = updated daily)||Data and archive|
|Solar wind (*)||Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (*)|
|Electron fluence (*)||Archived daily reports and monthly data since 2003.01 (May 1, 2023)|
|Solar cycle||Solar cycles 23-25 (May 1, 2023)||Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (April 5, 2007)|
|Cycle 24-25 progress (May 1, 2023)||Noon SDO sunspot count 1K image / 4K (*)|
|Solar cycles 1-24 (July 1, 2020)||POES auroral activity level [October 2009 - December 2012]|
|Comparison of cycles 21-25 (May 1, 2023)||3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013|
|Comparison of cycles 12-14, 16, 24-25 (May 1, 2023)||4th SSN Workshop, Locarno, 2014|
|Solar polar fields vs. solar cycles (April 5, 2023)||Cycle 25 spots (final update December 25, 2019)|
|Solar cycles 24-25 transition using 365d smoothing||Research: Solar Cycle 25 Started on November 17, 2019 with 365 Days Smoothing|
The geomagnetic field was quiet to minor storm on May 12 due to CME effects. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 493 and 647 km/sec. The high latitude magnetometer at Andenes recorded unsettled to minor storm levels.
Solar flux density measured at 20h UT on 2.8 GHz was 149.1 - decreasing 26.7 over the previous solar rotation. (Centered 1 year average SF at 1 AU - 183 days ago: 141.11. In comparison SC24 peaked on June 28, 2014 at 145.50). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 19 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 18.6). Three hour interval K indices: 23335322 (planetary), 24434423 (Boulder), 44335434 (Andenes).
The background x-ray flux is at the class C1 level (GOES 16).
At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 17 active regions using 2K resolution (SN: 327) and in 12 active regions using 1K resolution (SN: 189) SDO/HMI images.
Region 13294 [S07W61] decayed slowly and
Region 13296 [N15W76] decayed slowly producing several C flares. The largest was a C9.0 long duration event that began late in the day and peaked early on May 13. C1 flares: C1.7 @ 09:07, C1.6 @ 16:23, C1.3 @ 20:42 UT
Region 13297 [N09W58] decayed slowly and was mostly quiet. C1 flares: C1.6 @ 06:31, C1.8 @ 06:42 UT
Region 13300 [N09W40] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 13301 [N13E29] was mostly quiet and stable.
Region 13302 [N18E36] was mostly quiet and stable. Of note is a negative polarity spot fully embedded in an otherwise positive polarity area. C1 flare: C1.7 @ 19:10 UT
Region 13303 [S10E18] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 13304 [N22E09] developed slowly and could produce C flares. C1 flares: C1.7 @ 17:00 UT
New region 13305 [N09E40] was split off from AR 13301. C1 flare: C1.8 @ 09:20, C1.5 @ 21:02, C1.7 @ 22:50 UT
Spotted regions not observed (or interpreted
differently) by SWPC:
S8528 [S05W34] was quiet and stable.
S8541 [S23W37] decayed slowly and quietly.
S8549 [S23E24] reemerged with tiny spots.
S8551 [N12E08] decayed slowly and quietly.
S8552 [S19W06] reemerged with tiny spots.
New region S8554 [S24W50] emerged with tiny spots.
New region S8555 [S23E07] emerged with tiny spots.
New region S8556 [N13W01] emerged with tiny spots.
|Magnitude||Peak time (UT)||Location||Source||Recorded by||Comment|
|C9.0||00:45 on May 13 (event started at 23:22 UT)||LDE|
May 11: Several CMEs were observed during the
day. A faint halo CME may have been associated with the M2 flare in AR 13294
at 09:01 UT.
May 10, 12: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed.
[Coronal hole history (since October 2002)]
[Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago]
An elongated northern hemisphere coronal hole (CH1146) was Earth facing on May 8-11, but may be too far to the north to cause a geomagnetic disturbance. A southern hemisphere coronal hole (CH1147) rotated across the central meridian on May 11.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle and high latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor.
Quiet to unsettled conditions are likely on May 13 due to weak CME effects. Quiet conditions are expected on May 14-15, however, should effects from CH1147 arrive or the May 11 CME arrive, then some unsettled and active intervals will be likely.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole
could reach Earth within the next 5 days. When the high speed
stream has arrived the color changes to green.
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution). 4K resolution. Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all officially numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC, all other regions are numbered sequentially as they emerge using the STAR spot number. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers. SWPC data considered to be not sufficiently precise (location, area, classification) are colored red.
|Active region||SWPC date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlays
rotated out of view
|Total spot count:||44||157||69|
|Sunspot number:||134||327||189||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||79||191||103||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||147||180||151|
|Month||Average solar flux||International sunspot number
|Smoothed sunspot number (4)||Average ap
|166.3||146.1 (SC24 peak)||110.5||10.70|
|2014.04||143.9||144.8||112.5||116.4 (SC24 solar max)||7.88|
(Solar minimum using 365d smoothing:
November 17, 2019)
(ISN 13 months smoothed
|2022.11||123.4||120.7||80.5||(100.4 projected, +1.7)||9.33|
|2022.12||147.9||143.4||112.8||(104.1 projected, +3.7)||10.99|
|2023.01||182.4||176.6||143.6||(110.1 projected, +6.0)||8.73|
|2023.02||167.2||163.2||110.9||(115.2 projected, +5.1)||14.48
|2023.03||157.2||155.6||122.6||(118.3 projected, +3.1)||14.42|
|2023.04||145.4||146.4||96.4||(123.7 projected, +5.4)||13.40|
|2023.05||160.1 (1)||47.8 (2A) / 123.6 (2B) / 157.1 (2C)||(129.3 projected, +5.6)||(12.3)|
|2023.06||(132.5 projected, +3.2)|
|2023.07||(132.0 projected, -0.5)|
|2023.08||(133.0 projected, +1.0)|
|2023.09||(136.4 projected, +3.4)|
|2023.10||(138.3 projected, +1.9)|
|2023.11||(141.4 projected, +3.1)|
|2023.12||(142.5 projected max SC25)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at 2800 MHz
and any corrections applied to that measurement.
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days).
2B) Boulder SN current month average to date.
2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
4) Source: SIDC-SILSO.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to Universal Time. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.