|Charts (* = updated daily)||Data and archive|
|Solar wind (*)||Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (*)|
|Electron fluence (*)||Archived daily reports and monthly data since 2003.01 (January 6, 2023)|
|Solar cycle||Solar cycles 23-25 (January 1, 2023)||Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (April 5, 2007)|
|Cycle 24-25 progress (January 1, 2023)||Noon SDO sunspot count 1K image / 4K (*)|
|Solar cycles 1-24 (July 1, 2020)||POES auroral activity level [October 2009 - December 2012]|
|Comparison of cycles 21-25 (January 1, 2023)||3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013|
|Comparison of cycles 12-14, 16, 24-25 (January 1, 2023)||4th SSN Workshop, Locarno, 2014|
|Solar polar fields vs. solar cycles (January 21, 2023)||Cycle 25 spots (final update December 25, 2019)|
|Solar cycles 24-25 transition using 365d smoothing||Research: Solar Cycle 25 Started on November 17, 2019 with 365 Days Smoothing|
The geomagnetic field was quiet to unsettled on January 25, weakly under the influence of effects from CH1126 during the latter half of the day. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 375 and 468 km/sec. The high latitude magnetometer at Andenes recorded quiet to unsettled levels.
Solar flux density measured at 20h UT on 2.8 GHz was 171.8 - increasing 9.0 over the previous solar rotation. (Centered 1 year average SF at 1 AU - 183 days ago: 130.47). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 6 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 5.6). Three hour interval K indices: 00123211 (planetary), 00133222 (Boulder), 00003313 (Andenes).
The background x-ray flux is at the class C2 level (GOES 16).
At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 14 active regions using 2K resolution (SN: 260) and in 12 active regions using 1K resolution (SN: 177) SDO/HMI images.
Region 13190 [S14W83] rotated partly out of
view and was the source of the largest flare of the day, an M4.6 event at
Region 13192 [N17W84] became more unstable as it rotated mostly out of view and produced a number of C and M flares.
Region 13196 [N11W49] developed slowly and produced a few C flares.
Region 13197 [N17W43] was quiet and stable.
Region 13198 [N25W22] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 13200 [N22E21] developed significantly gaining spots and area. The region has polarity intermixing. C flares and maybe even a minor M class flare is possible.
Region 13201 [N23E45] was quiet and stable.
New region 13203 [N17E31] emerged on January 24 and was numbered the next day by SWPC.
Spotted regions not observed (or interpreted
differently) by SWPC:
S8195 [N10W07] decayed slowly and quietly.
S8196 [N17W07] has a weak magnetic delta and could produce C flares. Note that SWPC considers this and AR S8195 as one region.
S8200 [N21W33] was quiet and stable.
S8209 [S30E29] reemerged with tiny spots.
S8210 [N24E06] developed slowly and quietly.
New region S8213 [S27W00] emerged with a tiny spot.
|Magnitude||Peak time (UT)||Location||Source||Recorded by||Comment|
|C4.9||02:55||13190||GOES16||simultaneous flare in AR S8194 behind the SW limb|
|M4.6||10:11||13190||GOES16||LDE. Simultaneous smaller flare in AR 13192|
|M1.3||17:01||N17W77||13190||GOES16||simultaneous flare in AR 13192|
|C4.8||19:36 (peak likely earlier)||13190||GOES16|
January 23-25: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed in available LASCO imagery.
[Coronal hole history (since October 2002)]
[Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago]
A trans equatorial coronal hole (CH1126) rotated across the central meridian on January 21-22. A northern hemisphere coronal hole (CH1127) was Earth facing on January 24. A recurrent southern hemisphere coronal hole (CH1128) could become Earth facing on January 28.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle and high latitudes is fair. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor.
Quiet to unsettled geomagnetic conditions are expected on January 26 due to weak effects from CH1126. Effects from CH1127 could cause quiet to unsettled conditions on January 27-28.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole
could reach Earth within the next 5 days. When the high speed
stream has arrived the color changes to green.
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution). 4K resolution. Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all officially numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC, all other regions are numbered sequentially as they emerge using the STAR spot number. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers. SWPC data considered to be not sufficiently precise (location, area, classification) are colored red.
|Active region||SWPC date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlays
SWPC data is very confusing. They have moved AR 13196 to near the location of AR 13197 and created new AR 13202 in the location of AR 13196. Meanwhile the SWPC guys analysing flares are still using the old, correct position of AR 13196
AR 13197 is another victim in the confusion SWPC has created with their January 25 interpretation. The region has been moved to near the location of AR S8200 as the original AR 13196 has been moved to the location of AR 13197.
|13199||2023.01.20||6||N18W08||0040||CAO||SWPC considers ARs S8195 and S8196 to be one group|
|13202||2023.01.25||5||N13W47||0010||CAO||SWPC has created a new region in the position of old AR 13196|
|Total spot count:||40||120||57|
|Sunspot number:||140||260||177||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||88||168||105||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||154||143||142|
|Month||Average solar flux||International sunspot number
|Smoothed sunspot number (4)||Average ap
|166.3||146.1 (SC24 peak)||110.5||10.70|
|2014.04||143.9||144.8||112.5||116.4 (solar max)||7.88|
(Solar minimum using 365d smoothing:
November 17, 2019)
(ISN 13 months smoothed
|2022.07||125.4||129.5||91.4||(86.0 projected, +5.1)||9.51|
|2022.08||114.2||117.1||74.6||(91.4 projected, +5.4)||10.92|
|2022.09||135.1||136.5||96.0||(96.3 projected, +4.9)||12.18|
|2022.10||133.5||132.7||95.4||(99.5 projected, +3.2)||11.16|
|2022.11||123.4||120.7||77.6||(102.3 projected, +2.8)||9.33|
|2022.12||147.9||143.4||113.1||(107.1 projected, +4.8)||11.13|
|2023.01||192.4 (1)||118.1 (2A) / 146.5 (2B) / 173.7 (2C)||(113.1 projected, +6.0)||(9.0)|
|2023.02||(118.2 projected, +5.1)|
|2023.03||(121.3 projected, +3.1)|
|2023.04||(126.7 projected, +5.4)|
|2023.05||(132.5 projected, +5.8)|
|2023.06||(135.7 projected, +3.2)|
|2023.11||(142.5 projected max SC25)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at 2800 MHz
and any corrections applied to that measurement.
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days).
2B) Boulder SN current month average to date.
2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
4) Source: SIDC-SILSO.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to Universal Time. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.