|Charts (* = updated daily)||Data and archive|
|Solar wind (*)||Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (*)|
|Electron fluence (*)||Archived daily reports and monthly data since 2003.01 (March 1, 2022)|
|Solar cycle||Solar cycles 23-25 (March 1, 2022)||Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (April 5, 2007)|
|Cycle 24-25 progress (March 1, 2022)||Noon SDO sunspot count 1K image / 4K (*)|
|Solar cycles 1-24 (June 1, 2020)||POES auroral activity level October 2009 - December 2012]|
|Comparison of cycles 21-25 (March 1, 2022)||3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013|
|Comparison of cycles 12-14, 16, 24-25 (March 1, 2022)||4th SSN Workshop, Locarno, 2014|
|Solar polar fields vs. solar cycles (April 10, 2022)||Cycle 25 spots (final update December 25, 2019)|
|Solar cycles 24-25 transition using 365d smoothing||Research: Solar Cycle 25 Started on November 17, 2019 with 365 Days Smoothing|
The geomagnetic field was quiet to active on April 29 under the influence of weak CME effects. The high latitude magnetometer at Andenes recorded quiet to major storm levels. A high speed stream likely associated with CH1076 was observed arriving at DSCOVR at 23:26 UT and caused unsettled to active conditions early on April 30.
Solar flux density measured at 20h UT on 2.8 GHz was 123.5 - decreasing 19.8 over the previous solar rotation. (Centered 1 year average SF at 1 AU - 183 days ago: 94.53). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 12 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 12.4). Three hour interval K indices: 443223232 (planetary), 34233322 (Boulder), 55334444 (Andenes).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B7 level (GOES 16).
At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 11 active regions using 2K resolution (SN: 202) and in 9 active regions using 1K resolution (SN: 118) SDO/HMI images.
Region 12995 [N14W65] was mostly quiet and stable. C1 flares:
C1.3 @ 06:57 UT
Region 12997 [N12W22] decayed in the trailing spots section and was quiet.
Region 12998 [S19W01] gained tiny spots and was quiet. Note that SWPC has assigned a new number (12999) to the region due to the faulty initial location of AR 12998. For data consistency the original number is used in this report.
Region 13000 [S17E32] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 13001 [S32E37] was quiet and stable.
New region 13003 [S23E51] emerged on April 28 and was numbered the next day by SWPC.
Spotted regions not observed (or interpreted
differently) by SWPC:
S7518 [S09E18] was quiet and stable.
S7521 [S25W22] reemerged with tiny spots.
S7525 [N30E40] was quiet and stable.
S7526 [S18E22] reemerged with tiny spots.
S7529 [S15E55] was quiet and stable.
AR 12994 produced several flares while rotating out of
view at the northwest limb. C1 flares: C1.4 @ 03:31, C1.5 @ 12:10, C1.9 @
16:48 UT. The region has been very active during the first half of April 30
producing several C and M class flares.
Spotless plage AR 12996 was the source of a C1.5 flare at 06:38 UT.
|Magnitude||Peak time (UT)||Location||Source||Recorded by||Comment|
April 27: A partial halo CME was observed after the C7.7 long
duration event in AR 12996. The CME could reach Earth on April 30 and cause
unsettled to minor storm conditions.
April 28: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed in available LASCO imagery.
April 29: A fast CME was observed off the northwest limb after the M1.2 flare in AR 12996 at 07:30 UT. Faint and slower components of the CME was observed around most of the visible disk and there is a chance of a weak impact on May 2.
[Coronal hole history (since October 2002)]
[Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago]
A recurrent southern hemisphere coronal hole (CH1076) was Earth facing on April 26-27.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle and high latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor to fair.
Quiet to active conditions are likely on April 30 due to effects from CH1076. Late in the day or on May 1 there is a chance of a CME related disturbance. A CME disturbance is possible on May 2 as well.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole
could reach Earth within the next 5 days. When the high speed
stream has arrived the color changes to green.
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution). 4K resolution. Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all officially numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC, all other regions are numbered sequentially as they emerge using the STAR spot number. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers. SWPC data considered to be not sufficiently precise (location, area, classification) are colored red.
|Active region||SWPC date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlays
|1||N15W92||0030||HAX||rotated out of view|
SWPC location way off
|12999||2022.04.25||6||S21W00||0120||CSO||SWPC renumber of AR 12998|
|Total spot count:||20||92||28|
|Sunspot number:||90||202||118||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||43||112||48||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||99||111||94|
|Month||Average solar flux||International sunspot number
|Smoothed sunspot number (4)||Average ap
|166.3||146.1 (SC24 peak)||110.5||10.70|
|2014.04||143.9||144.8||112.5||116.4 (solar max)||7.88|
(Solar minimum using 365d smoothing:
November 17, 2019)
(ISN 13 months smoothed
|2021.10||88.9||88.3||38.1||(44.9 projected, +4.9)||7.38|
|2021.11||86.2||84.4||35.0||(50.5 projected, +5.6)||9.83|
|2021.12||103.0||99.8||67.6||(56.4 projected, +5.9)||6.40|
|2022.01||103.8||100.5||54.0||(60.0 projected, +3.6)||8.92|
|2022.02||109.1||106.5||59.7||(64.8 projected, +4.8)||10.46|
|2022.03||117.0||115.8||78.3||(70.2 projected, +5.4)||10.20|
|2022.04||131.2 (1)||74.4 (2A) / 77.0 (2B) / 94.2 (2C)||(75.4 projected, +5.2)||(11.8)|
|2022.05||(81.8 projected, +6.4)|
|2022.06||(87.7 projected, +5.9)|
|2022.07||(94.9 projected, +7.2)|
|2022.08||(101.6 projected, +6.7)|
|2022.09||(106.6 projected, +5.0)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at 2800 MHz
and any corrections applied to that measurement.
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days).
2B) Boulder SN current month average to date.
2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
4) Source: SIDC-SILSO.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to Universal Time. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.