|Charts (* = updated daily)||Data and archive|
|Solar wind (*)||Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (*)|
|Electron fluence (*)||Archived daily reports and monthly data since 2003.01 (October 8, 2023)|
|Solar cycle||Solar cycles 23-25 (October 1, 2023)||Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (April 5, 2007)|
|Cycle 24-25 progress (October 1, 2023)||Noon SDO sunspot count 1K image / 4K (*)|
|Solar cycles 1-24 (July 1, 2020)||POES auroral activity level [October 2009 - December 2012]|
|Comparison of cycles 21-25 (October 1, 2023)||3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013|
|Comparison of cycles 12-14, 16, 24-25 (October 1, 2023)||4th SSN Workshop, Locarno, 2014|
|Solar polar fields vs. solar cycles (July 10, 2023)||Cycle 25 spots (final update December 25, 2019)|
|Solar cycles 24-25 transition using 365d smoothing||Research: Solar Cycle 25 Started on November 17, 2019 with 365 Days Smoothing|
The geomagnetic field was quiet on October 25. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 300 and 356 km/sec. A low speed positive polarity stream associated with CH1181 began during the evening. The high latitude magnetometer at Andenes recorded quiet to active levels.
Solar flux density measured at 20h UT on 2.8 GHz was 125.8 - decreasing 22.0 over the previous solar rotation. (Centered 1 year average SF at 1 AU - 183 days ago: 155.72. In comparison SC24 peaked on June 28, 2014 at 145.50). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 3 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 2.6). Three hour interval K indices: 10001112 (planetary), 10001212 (Boulder), 00000224 (Andenes).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B5 level (GOES 16).
At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 11 active regions using 2K resolution (SN: 155) and in 8 active regions using 1K resolution (SN: 100) SDO/HMI images.
Region 13468 [S09W50] decayed slowly and
retained only rudimentary penumbra around the single umbra.
Region 13470 [N27W33] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 13471 [S23W18] developed early in the day, then decayed slightly after noon.
Spotted regions not observed (or interpreted
differently) by SWPC/USAF:
S9086 [S18W30] developed after noon as new flux emerged.
New region S9087 [N19E67] rotated into view with a tiny spot.
New region S9088 [N19E57] emerged with tiny spots.
New region S9089 [N11E72] rotated into view with tiny spots.
New region S9090 [N15E80] rotated into view with a tiny spot. C1 flares: C1.4 @ 01:28, C1.8 @ 06:40, C1.0 @ 10:23. C1.5 @ 12:46 UT
New region S9091 [S16E15] was observed with tiny spots in an old plage area.
New region S9092 [S24E03] emerged with a tiny spot.
New region S9093 [N14W07] was observed with tiny spots in an old plage area.
A C1.7 flare was recorded at 13:06 UT from a location
at the southeast limb.
AR S9082 produced a C1.6 flare at 16:22 UT.
AR 13469 behind the northwest limb was the source of a C1.6 flare at 22:15 UT.
A C1.8 flare was recorded at 13:28 UT (location not determined).
|Magnitude||Peak time (UT)||Location||Source||Recorded by||Comment|
|C3.0||22:44||S9086||GOES16||incorrectly attributed to AR 13471 by SWPC|
October 23-25: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed.
[Coronal hole history (since October 2002)]
[Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago]
A poorly defined northern hemisphere positive polarity coronal hole (CH1181) was Earth facing on October 22. A large and well defined positive polarity trans equatorial coronal hole (CH1182) will likely rotate across the central meridian on October 27-28.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle and high latitudes is fair. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to active on October 26 and quiet to unsettled on October 27 due to effects from CH1181. Quiet conditions are likely on October 28-29. Quiet to minor storm conditions are expected on October 30-31 due to effects from CH1182.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejections (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole
could reach Earth within the next 5 days. When the high speed
stream has arrived the color changes to green.
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution). 4K resolution. Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all officially numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC, all other regions are numbered sequentially as they emerge using the STAR spot number. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers. SWPC data considered to be not sufficiently precise (location, area, classification) are colored red.
|Active region||SWPC date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlays
|Total spot count:||6||45||20|
|Sunspot number:||26||155||100||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||16||51||26||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||29||85||80|
|Month||Average solar flux||International sunspot number
|Smoothed sunspot number (4)||Average ap
|166.3||146.1 (SC24 peak)||110.5||10.70|
|2014.04||143.9||144.8||112.5||116.4 (SC24 solar max)||7.88|
(Solar minimum using 365d smoothing:
November 17, 2019)
(ISN 13 months smoothed
|2023.04||145.4||146.4||97.6||(126.6 projected, +5.4)||13.40|
|2023.05||155.6||159.2||137.4||(132.2 projected, +5.6)||10.67|
|2023.06||161.7||166.8||160.5||(135.4 projected, +3.2)||8.95|
|2023.07||176.4||182.2||159.1||(135.8 projected, +0.4)||8.15|
|2023.08||153.7||157.6||114.9||(137.6 projected, +1.8)||7.19|
|2023.09||154.4||156.0||133.6||(141.0 projected, +3.4)||14.26|
|2023.10||144.8 (1)||81.0 (2A) / 100.4 (2B) / 122.8 (2C)||(142.8 projected, +1.8)||(6.6)|
|2023.11||(145.4 projected max SC25, +2.6)|
|2023.12||(144.5 projected, -0.9)|
|2024.01||(141.7 projected, -2.8)|
|2024.02||(141.5 projected, -0.2)|
|2024.03||(141.0 projected, -0.5)|
|2024.04||(138.2 projected, -2.8)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at 2800 MHz
and any corrections applied to that measurement.
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days).
2B) Boulder SN current month average to date.
2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
4) Source: WDC-SILSO, Royal Observatory Of Belgium, Brussels
Looking back 6 months, the 365d smoothed values for solar flux and all sunspot numbers with the exception of NOAA's, are all above their solar cycle 24 peak. The first peak of solar cycle 25 is forecast to be between July 7 and 10, 2023 (solar flux on July 7, ISN and STAR 1K and 2K all have that peak on July 9, while NOAA peaks on July 10). This is unlikely to be the final peak of SC25, however, there is a small probability that it is the actual sunspot and solar flux maximum.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to Universal Time. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.