|Charts (* = updated daily)||Data and archive|
|Solar wind (*)||Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (*)|
|Electron fluence (*)||Archived daily reports and monthly data since 2003.01 (December 4, 2022)|
|Solar cycle||Solar cycles 23-25 (December 1, 2022)||Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (April 5, 2007)|
|Cycle 24-25 progress (December 1, 2022)||Noon SDO sunspot count 1K image / 4K (*)|
|Solar cycles 1-24 (July 1, 2020)||POES auroral activity level [October 2009 - December 2012]|
|Comparison of cycles 21-25 (December 1, 2022)||3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013|
|Comparison of cycles 12-14, 16, 24-25 (December 1, 2022)||4th SSN Workshop, Locarno, 2014|
|Solar polar fields vs. solar cycles (August 21, 2022)||Cycle 25 spots (final update December 25, 2019)|
|Solar cycles 24-25 transition using 365d smoothing||Research: Solar Cycle 25 Started on November 17, 2019 with 365 Days Smoothing|
The geomagnetic field was quiet to unsettled on December 25 under the influence of effects related to CH1121. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 424 and 669 km/sec. The high latitude magnetometer at Andenes recorded quiet to minor storm levels.
Solar flux density measured at 20h UT on 2.8 GHz was 145.8 (estimated from Almaty data due missing DRAO data) - increasing 37.9 over the previous solar rotation. (Centered 1 year average SF at 1 AU - 183 days ago: 123.65). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 9 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 8.4). Three hour interval K indices: 33112223 (planetary), 24223222 (Boulder), 43212245 (Andenes).
The background x-ray flux is at the class C1 level (GOES 16).
At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 14 active regions using 2K resolution (SN: 312) and in 11 active regions using 1K resolution (SN: 187) SDO/HMI images.
Region 13168 [S15W76] was quiet and stable.
Region 13169 [N21W18] gained some area in the central spot section while spots and area was lost in the leading and trailing spot sections. A minor M class flare is possible. C1 flares: C1.6 @ 03:39, C1.6 @ 01:27, C1.2 @ 10:03, C1.7 @ 11:00, C1.6 @ 12:24 UT
Region 13170 [S19W26] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 13171 [N25W11] decayed slowly and was mostly quiet. Spots to the south of the region were split off into AR S8122.
Region 13172 [S34E18] was quiet and stable.
Region 13173 [N26E37] was quiet and stable.
New region 13175 [S20E56] emerged with several spots on December 24 and was numbered the next day by SWPC.
Spotted regions not observed (or interpreted
differently) by SWPC:
S8113 [N22W32] was quiet and stable.
S8117 [S22W08] reemerged with tiny spots.
S8120 [N20E17] was quiet and stable.
New region S8122 [N21W12] was split off from AR 13171 as more flux emerged and spots formed.
New region S8123 [S17E18] emerged with tiny spots.
New region S8124 [N17W57] emerged with a tiny spot.
New region S8125 [N19E76] rotated into view with a few spots. C1 flares: C1.4 @ 16:10, C1.7 @ 14:45 UT
|Magnitude||Peak time (UT)||Location||Source||Recorded by||Comment|
|C7.8||07:01||N18W20||13169||GOES16||weak type II radio sweep|
|C2.8||18:40||S8125||GOES16||incorrectly attributed to AR 13171 by SWPC|
|C2.5||00:09 (on Dec.26)||S8125||GOES16|
December 23, 25: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed in available LASCO imagery.
December 24: A filament eruption was observed near AR 13171 starting at approximately 00:38 UT. LASCO imagery displayed a partial halo CME that could reach Earth on December 27.
[Coronal hole history (since October 2002)]
[Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago]
A recurrent northern hemisphere coronal hole (CH1122) will rotate across the central meridian on December 25-27.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle and high latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor.
Quiet to active geomagnetic conditions are expected for December 26. On December 27-28 unsettled to minor storm conditions are possible due to CME effects. Effects from CH1122 could reach Earth on December 28 and cause quiet to minor storm conditions until December 30
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole
could reach Earth within the next 5 days. When the high speed
stream has arrived the color changes to green.
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution). 4K resolution. Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all officially numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC, all other regions are numbered sequentially as they emerge using the STAR spot number. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers. SWPC data considered to be not sufficiently precise (location, area, classification) are colored red.
|Active region||SWPC date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlays
|N23W03||region should be deleted, spots were within the trailing polarity of AR 13171|
|Total spot count:||47||172||77|
|Sunspot number:||107||312||187||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||73||201||106||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||118||172||150|
|Month||Average solar flux||International sunspot number
|Smoothed sunspot number (4)||Average ap
|166.3||146.1 (SC24 peak)||110.5||10.70|
|2014.04||143.9||144.8||112.5||116.4 (solar max)||7.88|
(Solar minimum using 365d smoothing:
November 17, 2019)
(ISN 13 months smoothed
|2022.06||116.1||119.8||70.3||(80.7 projected, +3.6)||8.20|
|2022.07||125.4||129.5||91.4||(85.7 projected, +5.0)||9.51|
|2022.08||114.2||117.1||75.4||(91.4 projected, +5.7)||10.92|
|2022.09||135.1||136.5||96.3||(96.3 projected, +4.9)||12.18|
|2022.10||133.5||132.7||95.4||(99.5 projected, +3.2)||11.16|
|2022.11||123.4||120.7||77.6||(102.3 projected, +2.8)||9.33|
|2022.12||145.1 (1)||90.5 (2A) / 113.1 (2B) / 123.4 (2C)||(107.1 projected, +4.8)||(9.5)|
|2023.01||(113.1 projected, +6.0)|
|2023.02||(118.1 projected, +5.0)|
|2023.03||(121.2 projected, +3.1)|
|2023.04||(126.6 projected, +5.4)|
|2023.05||(132.4 projected, +5.8)|
|2023.11||(142.5 projected max SC25)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at 2800 MHz
and any corrections applied to that measurement.
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days).
2B) Boulder SN current month average to date.
2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
4) Source: SIDC-SILSO.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to Universal Time. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.