Last major update issued on May 9, 2014 at 05:40 UTC.
[Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (updated
[Solar wind and electron fluence charts (updated daily)]
[Solar cycles 23-24 (last update May 1, 2014)] [Cycle 24 progress (last update May 1, 2014) ]
[Solar cycles 1-20]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (last update May 1, 2014)]
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[Presentation 3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013 (pdf)]
The geomagnetic field was quiet to active on May 8. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 328 and 403 km/s.
Solar flux at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 148.1 (increasing 10.5 over the last solar rotation). The 90 day 10.7 flux at 1 AU was 149.4. The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 18 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 18.0). Three hour interval K indices: 23342334 (planetary), 24343433 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B6 level.
At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 19 active regions in 2K resolution (SN: 308) and 17 active regions in 1K resolution (SN: 229) SDO images on the visible solar disk.
Region 12049 [S08W77] developed slowly and was
Region 12050 [N12W71] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 12052 [S12W31] decayed losing all umbrae.
Region 12053 [N09W15] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 12054 [S12E12] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 12055 [N12E30] gained a few spots and was quiet. An M class flare is possible.
Region 12056 [N05E45] still has a magnetic delta structure in the trailing penumbra another major flare is possible.
Region 12057 [N15E53] was quiet and stable.
New region 12058 [S12E68] rotated into view on May 7 and was numbered by SWPC the next day.
Spotted regions not numbered (or interpreted differently) by SWPC:
S3386 [S19W28] was quiet and stable.
S3393 [S12W68] was quiet and stable.
S3394 [S16W03] was quiet and stable.
S3398 [S26W10] reemerged with a penumbra spot.
S3401 [N03E56] was quiet and stable.
New region S3404 [N13E19] emerged with penumbra spots.
New region S3405 [N09E50] emerged with a few spots.
New region S3406 [N00E47] was split off from AR 12056.
New region S3407 [S17E79] rotated into view.
New region S3408 [S33E07] emerged with penumbra spots.
May 6-8: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed in LASCO and STEREO imagery.
Coronal hole history (since October
Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A small southern hemisphere coronal hole (CH616) was in an Earth facing position on May 7.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is fair.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to unsettled on May 9-10 and quiet on May 11.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution) Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlay
|Total spot count:||34||118||59|
|Sunspot number:||124||308||229||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||77||172||113||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||74||108||126||k * (sunspot number). k = 0.6 for SWPC, k = 0.35 for MSN 2K, k = 0.55 for MSN 1K (MSN=Magnetic Sunspot Number)|
|Month||Average solar flux||International sunspot number
|Smoothed sunspot number||Average ap
|2013.11||148.3||145.1||77.6||(75.6 projected, +0.6)||5.68|
|2013.12||147.7||143.1||90.3||(76.6 projected, +1.0)||4.68|
|2014.01||157.4||152.4||82.0||(77.6 projected, +1.0)||5.44|
|166.3||102.8 (cycle peak)||(77.4 projected, -0.2)||10.70|
|2014.03||149.9||148.5||92.2||(77.9 projected, +0.5)||4.88|
|2014.04||143.9||144.8||84.7||(77.0 projected, -0.9)||7.88|
|2014.05||136.4 (1)||30.5 (2A) / 118.3 (2B) / 95.4 (2C)||(74.4 projected, -2.6)||(6.9)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official WDC-SILSO international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Boulder SN current month average to date. 2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.