Last major update issued on May 1, 2013 at 06:10 UTC.
[Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (updated
[Solar wind and electron fluence charts (updated daily)]
[Solar cycles 23-24 (last update May 1, 2013)] [Cycle 24 progress (last update April 7, 2013) ]
[Solar cycles 1-20]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (last update May 1, 2013)]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 10, 12, 13, 14, 16 and 24 (last update May 1, 2013)]
[Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (last update April 5, 2007)]
[Archived reports since January 2003 (last update April 4, 2013)]
[POES auroral activity level since October
2009 - updated January 26, 2013]
[Solar polar fields vs solar cycles - updated March 24, 2013]
[Presentation 3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013 (pdf)]
The geomagnetic field was quiet on April 30. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 323 and 473 km/s. At ACE solar wind speed increased slowly after 08h UTC and peaked about 6 hours later. SOHO/MTOF displays a very different solar wind development with a sudden increase in speed at 11:43 UTC. Based on the available data it is difficult to determine the source of the disturbance. Bz was initially predominantly northwards, then swung slowly southwards and was predominantly southwards after 19h UTC. Early on May 1 Bz is moderately southwards.
Solar flux measured at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 154.4 (increasing 27.4 over the last solar rotation). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 5 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 5.3). Three hour interval K indices: 21122112 (planetary), 21222313 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux was at the class B8 level.
At midnight UTC the visible solar disk had 13 spotted active regions (in 2K resolution SDO images).
Region 11728 [N20W26] decayed slowly and quietly barely retaining
rudimentary penumbra on the leader spots.
Region 11730 [S16W37] decayed in the trailing spot section. There is still a magnetic delta structure centrally. C and minor M class flares are possible.
Region 11731 [N09W04] has an impressive number of spots and a weak magnetic delta structure in a central penumbra. Umbral area remains unimpressive, C and minor M class flares are possible.
Region 11732 [S17E33] matured and lost some magnetic complexity.
Region 11733 [S17W70] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 11734 [S18E58] was mostly quiet. Trailing spots merged into a large penumbral structure. M flares are possible.
Region 11735 [S18W60] decayed quickly and was mostly quiet.
Spotted regions not numbered by SWPC:
New region S2388 [S07E49] emerged with several penumbra spots, the region is likely to develop further due to emerging flux.
New region S2389 [S22E48] emerged with a penumbra spot.
New region S2390 [S34E50] emerged with a penumbra spot.
New region S2391 [N18E75] rotated into view with a penumbra spot.
New region S2392 [N22E48] emerged with penumbra spots.
New region S2393 [S09W12] emerged with penumbra spots.
April 28-30: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed in LASCO and STEREO imagery.
Coronal hole history (since October
Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A northern hemisphere coronal hole (CH567) was in an Earth facing position on April 28-30. A recurrent trans equatorial coronal hole (CH568) could become Earth facing on May 3.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over high and upper middle latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is fair to good.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to unsettled with a chance of active intervals on May 1 due to the disturbance which began on April 30. Quiet to active is possible on May 2-3 due to effects from CH567.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-20% probability, Yellow: 20-60% probability, Red: 60-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution) Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5k image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlay
|Total spot count:||95||195||102|
|Sunspot number:||165||325||192||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||133||226||133||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||99||114||106||k * (sunspot number). k = 0.6 for SWPC, k = 0.35 for STAR SDO 2K, k = 0.55 for STAR SDO 1K|
|Month||Average measured solar flux||International sunspot number (SIDC)||Smoothed sunspot number||Average ap
|2011.11||153.5 (cycle max)||96.7 (cycle max)||61.1 (+1.2)||5.55|
possible cycle 24 max
|2012.11||121.3||61.8||(59.1 projected, +0.5)||7.08|
|2012.12||108.6||40.8||(58.4 projected, -0.7)||3.44|
|2013.01||127.1||62.9||(58.0 projected, -0.4)||4.69|
|2013.02||104.3||38.0||(58.2 projected, +0.5)||6.11|
|2013.03||111.3||57.9||(57.8 projected, -0.4)||10.56|
|2013.04||124.8||72.4||(57.4 projected, -0.4)||5.45|
|2013.05||(1)||0.0 (2A/2B) / 71.7 (2C)||(57.5 projected, +0.1)||()|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official SIDC international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Boulder SN current month average to date. 2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international Potsdam WDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.