Last major update issued on April 23, 2012 at 04:10 UTC.
[Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (updated
[Solar wind and electron fluence charts (updated daily)
[Solar cycles 21-24 (last update April 1, 2012)]
[Solar cycles 1-20]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (last update April 1, 2012)]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 10, 12, 13, 14, 16 and 24 (last update April 1, 2012)]
[Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (last update April 5, 2007)]
[Archived reports since January 2003 (last update April 1, 2012)]
[POES auroral activity level since October
2009 - updated April 22, 2012]
Annotated geomagnetic activity charts - Carrington rotation 2118 [December 2011 - January 2012] - 2119 [January-February 2012]
[Solar polar fields vs solar cycles - updated June 27, 2011]
The geomagnetic field was quiet to active on April 22. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 308 and 356 km/s. A weak solar wind shock was observed at SOHO at 02:29 UTC on April 23, its source was likely one of the CMEs observed on April 19.
Solar flux measured at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 147.9 (increasing 45.5 over the last solar rotation). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 10 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 10.5). Three hour interval K indices: 43232112 (planetary), 32231212 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B6 level.
At midnight UTC the visible solar disk had 9 spotted active regions (in 2K resolution SDO images).
Region 11459 [S16W26] decayed losing many spots and some penumbral
Region 11460 [N15W41] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 11461 [N13E03] was quiet and stable.
Region 11462 [S25W70] displayed little change and was quiet.
Region 11465 [S17E15] developed further with a significant magnetic delta structure forming on the leading penumbra. The separation between leading and trailing polarity spots have generally decreased. The region is currently the most interesting on the visible disk and has major flare potential.
New region 11466 [N12E27] emerged on April 21 and developed slowly and quietly on April 22 when it was numbered by SWPC.
Spotted active regions not numbered by NOAA/SWPC:
S1598 [N15W08] reemerged with two tiny spots.
S1605 [S12W08] was mostly unchanged and could soon merge with AR 11459.
New region S1607 [S13W05] emerged in an old plage area with a few spots.
April 20-22: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed in LASCO and STEREO imagery.
Coronal hole history (since October
Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A coronal hole (CH514) in the northern hemisphere was in an Earth facing position on April 21, however, CH514 closed the same day and it is uncertain if there will be any associated disturbance.
The above coronal hole map is based on a method where coronal holes are detected automatically. While the method may need some fine tuning, it has significant advantages over detecting coronal holes manually. The main improvement is the ability to detect coronal holes at and just beyond the solar limbs. Early results using this method for SDO images over a span of several weeks indicate a good match between coronal holes observed over the visible disk and their extent and position at the east and west limbs. Note that the polar coronal holes are easily detected using this method, the extent and intensity of both CHs are consistent with other data sources.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over high and upper middle latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor to fair.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to minor storm on April 23 due to CME effects and quiet to unsettled on April 24-25.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-20% probability, Yellow: 20-60% probability, Red: 60-100% probability.
Click on image for higher resolution image) Compare to the previous day's image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue (blue-green) is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlay
|Total spot count:||68||154||87|
|Sunspot number:||118||244||167||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted penumbral SN:||108||197||130||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||71||85||92||k * (sunspot number). k = 0.6 for SWPC, k = 0.35 (changed from 0.45 on March 1, 2011) for STAR SDO 2K, k = 0.55 for STAR SDO 1K|
|Month||Average measured solar flux||International sunspot number (SIDC)||Smoothed sunspot number||Average ap
|2008.07||65.7 (SF minimum)||0.5||2.8 (-0.4)|
|2011.10||137.3||88.0||(60.1 projected, +0.6)||8.28|
|2011.11||153.5||96.7||(61.6 projected, +1.5)||5.55|
|2011.12||141.3||73.0||(64.3 projected, +2.7)||3.78|
|2012.01||132.5||58.3||(67.8 projected, +3.5)||7.15|
|2012.02||106.5||33.1||(71.8 projected, +4.0)||8.81|
|2012.03||114.7||64.2||(73.9 projected, +2.1)||16.08|
|2012.04||109.1 (1)||50.2 (2A) / 68.5 (2B)||(74.9 projected, +1.0)||(8.67)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official SIDC international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Month average to date.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international Potsdam WDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.